There are multiple ways to translate the idea of each and all, depending on the meaning.

Hoch - everyone, all, everything, each

When using the noun Hoch all followed by a plural noun, then the phrase is translated as "All of the [...]". When the following noun is signular though, the correct translation is "Each of the [...]" or "Every [...]" (1)

Hoch loD each man (taken individually)
Hoch loDpu' all men (taken as a group)

Example from The Klingon Way: (2)

wo' toy'taHvIS Hegh 'e' tul Hoch tlhIngan To die while serving the Empire is the hope of every Klingon.
In the above sentence, "each" is the translation to show that it's not about all Klingons as a group, but "each" individual person. If one were to talk about "all the Klingons", considering the race, then Hoch tlhInganpu' would be the best way.

ngIq - a single one, each one

This word is used to indicate that from a group of things, each single one is affected. It precedes the noun it modifies. From a programmer's point of view on could say that ngIq is basically the "for-each" construction. If we have a set of nuvpu' which is (A, B, C, D, E), then ngIq nuv luHoH expands to: A luHoH, B luHoH, C luHoH, D luHoH, E luHoH, executed sequentially.

Examples from paq'batlh, page 171: (3)
ngIq tonSaw' lo' 'ej tIqDu' lel In one single move, he removed the hearts,
ngIq tonSaw' lo' 'ej quvqa' In one single move, he restored his honor,
ngIq tonSaw' lo' 'ej rIn may' In one single move, the battle was done.

tonSaw' refers to a single move executed in a fight. Since the set of things iterated over by ngIq is singular, all the sentences are referring to the one thing in the set. Note that ngIq is used instead of wa' (one) here, because with wa', it's ambiguous whether those are three separate moves or not. With ngIq and a noun indicating a set of one thing, it's clear that the repetition refers to the same one thing.

ngIq nuv luHoH They killed each person, one by one. (4)

Examples from Klingon Monopoly:
ngIq raQ - 150 QaS outposts cost 150 [forces] each (5)

In this case, ngIq is used instead of Hoch, because with Hoch raQ, it's potentially ambiguous whether the same 150 QaS pays for all outposts together, or a different 150 QaS pays for each outpost. Of course, common sense would dictate that "each output" is the right definition even with Hoch raQ, but with ngIq it's unambiguously clear.

ngIq gholvo' wa'maH QaS yItlhap. Take 10 forces from each player (6)

Combining ngIq with plurals

It's not confirmed, but based on the examples, it seems like ngIq can not go in front of a plural noun. It just would not make sense combining the idea of "single" with plural forms.

See also


1 : HolQeD v5n2, p. 11, June 1996

2 : The Klingon Way, 1996, p. 74

3 : paq'batlh, November 2011, p. 171

4 : paq'batlh, November 2011, p. 135

5 , 6 : Monopoly, November 2011

Category: Grammar    Latest edit: 01 Dec 2016, by KlingonTeacher    Created: 08 Jun 2016 by KlingonTeacher
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