Pronoun

A pronoun is a word which stands in place of a noun, a name(1), or in certain circumstances, an entire sentence. Pronouns can also be used as the verb to be (2).

singular translation plural translation note
jIH I maH we
SoH you (single) tlhIH you (plural)
ghaH he, she chaH they only used for beings capable of language
'oH it bIH they used for inanimate objects and beings incapable of language

Because pronouns are inherently specified in the verb prefix, they are never required; however they can be used to add emphasis or clarity. yaS vIlegh and yaS vIlegh jIH both mean the same thing, I see the officer, but the second example adds emphasis which the prefix alone cannot do (I see the officer, and not someone else). Likewise, jIH mulegh yaS stresses that it is me the officer sees, and not someone else (even though the prefix mu- already states that).

When a pronoun is used as an indirect object, it can take a Type 5 noun suffix(3). In the sentence chaHvaD Soj qem yaS (the officer brings food to them), the pronoun+suffix chaHvaD indicates that they are the recipient of the food which the officer brings.

The two pronouns 'e' and net allow a sentence to be the object of a verb(4). For further details Sentence As Object .

The question words nuq and 'Iv are NOT pronouns, but can act much like pronouns do. They can stand in place of a noun when that noun is not known and you wish it to be identified. nuq vIlegh means What do I see? and mulegh 'Iv means Who sees me? They can also function as the question plus the verb to be as follows: yIH nuq (What is a tribble?) or HoD 'Iv (Who is the captain?). For further details Questions.

Pronoun used as to be

A pronoun can function as the verb to be as follows: tlhIngan jIH (I am a Klingon) or yaS ghaH (he is an officer). For further details to be.

References

1 : The Klingon Dictionary 5.1., p. 51

2 : The Klingon Dictionary 6.3., p. 67

3 : The Klingon Dictionary 6.8., p. 180

4 : The Klingon Dictionary 6.2.5., p. 65

Category: Grammar    Latest edit: 03 Oct 2019, by KlingonTeacher    Created: 27 Jun 2014 by BradWilson
History: r10 < r9 < r8 < r7 - View wiki text
 
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