TKD
chapter
4.3

Rover

The Rover is a special type of verb suffix, because it can move around between the other suffixes (i.e. it roves)(1). There are no rover suffixes for nouns (2).

Suffix meaning
-be' not
-Qo' don't!, won't!
-Ha' undo
-qu' emphatic

Rules

Undo

-Ha' always comes directly after the verb, before any other suffixes, so it can appear only once in a verb (double use makes no sense: yajHa'Ha'?)

This suffix can also be attached to adverbs, but not all of them.

Intensification

The suffix -qu' intensifies the verb or suffix it follows and is usually translated as "very".

Negation

The suffix -be' negates what precedes it. The suffix is not used when giving commands. One should use -Qo' instead. TKD mentions that "The suffix -be' cannot be used with imperative verbs." (3) which is a bit misleading. It does not mean that -be' cannot be used at all within imperatives, it just means that it is not used to say "don't". So the phrase yIleghbe'moH Cause him to not see follows the rules properly.

Negative imperative

When a command is given NOT to do something, as in "Don't touch", -Qo' is used instead of -be'. -Qo' always comes at the end unless followed by a Type 9 suffix, so can only appear once. Note that Qo' can be used as a standalone exclamation meaning "No! I won't! I refuse".

Combining rovers

While there can only one suffix of each type, a verb may have multiple rover suffixes. TKD shows two examples of using -be' and -qu' on one verb:
  • nuQawqu'be' "they have not finished us off"
  • pIHoHvIpbe'qu' "we are NOT afraid to kill you"

See also

Type Sort Suffixes
1 Oneself/one another -chuq, -'egh
2 Volition/predisposition -nIS, -qang, -rup, -beH, -vIp
3 Change -choH, -qa'
4 Cause -moH
5 Indefinite subject/ability -lu', -laH
6 Qualification -chu', -bej, -ba', -law'
7 Aspect -pu', -ta', -taH, -lI'
8 Honorific -neS
9 Syntactic markers -DI', -chugh, -pa', -vIS, -mo', -bogh, -meH, -'a', -jaj, -wI', -ghach
R Rovers -Ha', -Qo', -be', -qu'

References

1 : The Klingon Dictionary 4.3., p. 46

2 : http://www.qephom.de/e/message_from_maltz_140624.html Email from Marc Okrand of 24 June 2014

3 : The Klingon Dictionary, Chapter 4.3

Category: Grammar    Latest edit: 21 Jul 2017, by KlingonTeacher    Created: 11 Apr 2014 by RejutkaLupex
History: r10 < r9 < r8 < r7 - View wiki text



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1989
* is in the cinemas, including lots of Klingon dialogues
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